Japanese encephalitis and cholera

Japanese encephalitis is a potentially deadly infectious disease found mainly in Asia.

67.900 cases of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) are estimated to occur in Asia each year. This Japanese encephalitis virus is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes that have bitten an infected animal (like pigs).

Many infected people develop mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. Only about 1:25 to 1:1000 persons who are infected with the virus will develop symptomatic disease, an inflammation of the brain.

In people who develop severe disease, JE usually starts as a flu-like illness, with fever, chills, tiredness, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Confusion and agitation also occur in the early stage of disease.

It is fatal in approximately 30% of individuals who show symptoms, and results in permanent disability in half of the survivors.
 

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

Cholera is mostly a waterborne disease. It is also possible to catch the disease by eating contaminated seafood or food that became contaminated by being handled or prepared by someone with the disease.

Cholera has a short incubation period and produces an enterotoxin that causes a copious, painless, watery diarrhea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. Vomiting also occurs in most patients. Most persons infected with V. cholerae do not become ill, although the bacterium is present in their faeces for 7-14 days.

When illness does occur, about 80-90% of episodes are of mild or moderate severity and are difficult to distinguish clinically from other types of acute diarrhea. Less than 20% of ill persons develop typical cholera with signs of moderate or severe dehydration.

Sources:
www.who.int/topics/cholera/about/en/
www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/travelersdiarrhea_g.htm
www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/cholera/Pages/Factsheet.aspx
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